Green plants are the only plants in the environment that can capture solar energy and transform it into chemical energy. The chemical Energy Rates are held captive in the numerous organic molecules present in plants, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Because nearly all other living species rely on green plants for energy, the productivity of plants in catching solar energy in any given region forms a higher limit to the long-term flow of energy and pharmacological activities in the ecosystem.
Green plants provide food that is consumed by both themselves and herbivores. Animals eat frequently. Some carnivorous creatures feed on herbivores. In this way, one type of life helps the other. As a result, food from one tropic level reaches the other, forming a chain. This is referred to as the food chain.
A food chain is a recurring act of eating and being eaten that transfers energy and minerals through a series of species. The first link in the food chain is a green plant or producer that provides the chemical energy that is accessible to consumers. For example, the grass is devoured by a grasshopper, which is then consumed by a frog is then consumed by the hawk.
In any ecosystem, the food chain flows directly from green plants to herbivores, herbivores to carnivores, and carnivores to apex carnivores. Many food networks have terrestrial linkages thanks to humans.
There are three kinds of food chains:
1. Grazing food chain: The grazing food chain begins with green plants and progresses to herbivores primary carnivores, tertiary consumers, and the list continues. The gross output of a green plant in an environment can have three outcomes: it can be oxidized in photosynthesis, consumed by herbivorous animals, and then used by decomposers and converters before being released directly into the ecosystem. Absorbed food can be stored as carbs, proteins, and lipids in herbivores and converted into far more complex chemical compounds.
Respiration provides the energy for these processes. Herbivores, like autotrophs, get their energy from three sources: respiration, organic material decomposition by microorganisms, and eating by carnivores.
Similarly, when secondary or tertiary consumers consume primary carnivores, the total energy subsumed by foremost carnivores or gross tertiary production operates in the same way, and its demeanor into respiration, decay, and further utilization by other carnivores is identical to that of herbivores.
2. Parasitic food chain: It moves from large creatures to smaller ones without killing them outright, as in the case of predators.
3. The Food Chain of Detritus: Detritus refers to dead organic remnants such as metabolic wastes and exudates originating from the grazing food chain. The stored energy in detritus is not wasted in the environment as a whole, but rather serves energy source for a variety of species known as detritivores, who are not part of the grazing food chain. The resulting food chain is known as the debris food chain.
In certain ecosystems, the detritus food chain consumes more energy than the grazed food chain. The energy flow in the detritus food chain maintains a continuous transit rather than a sequential transfer between separate species. Algae, fungus, bacteria, slime molds, actinomycetes, protozoa, and other species are found in the detritus food chain. Detritus creatures consume partially degraded organic matter, partly digest it, and eliminate the residue in the form of simpler organic molecules after extracting some of the chemical energy in the diet to power their metabolism.